Wednesday, January 22, 2020

case study Leonardo Bridge Project Essay -- essays research papers

When Leonardo da Vinci designed a 240 meters bridge it would have been the longest bridge in the world. His plan was ambitious. In 1502, a skeptical sultan rejected Leonardo's design as impossible, but 300 years civilization finally embraced the engineering principle - arches as supports - underlying the construction. The bridge has been constructed, in Norway. Now instead of spanning the Bosporus , his visionary creation was destined to span 500 years as a bridge to another millennium. Vebjorn Sand, the man behind the modern project, has a site with images and details. http://www.vebjorn-sand.com/thebridge.htm Leonardo Bridge Project In 1502 Leonardo da Vinci did a simple drawing of a graceful bridge with a single span of 720-foot span (approximately 240-meters.) Da Vinci designed the bridge as part of a civil engineering project for Sultan Bajazet II of Constantinople (Istanbul.) The bridge was to span the Golden Horn, an inlet at the mouth of the Bosphorus River in what is now Turkey. The Bridge was never built. Leonardo's "Golden Horn" Bridge is a perfect "pressed-bow." Leonardo surmised correctly that the classic keystone arch could be stretched narrow and substantially widened without losing integrity by using a flared foothold, or pier, and the terrain to anchor each end of the span. It was conceived 300 years prior to its engineering principals being generally accepted. It was to be 72 feet-wide (24 meters), 1080-foot total length (360 meters) and 120 feet (40 meters) above the sea level at the highest point of the span. Norwegian painter and public art creator, Vebjà ¸rn Sand, saw the drawing and a model of the bridge in an exhibition on da Vinci's architectural & engineering designs in 1996. The power of the simple design overwhelmed him. He conceived of a project to bring its eternal beauty to life. The Norwegian Leonardo Bridge Project makes history as the first of Leonardo's civil engineering designs to be constructed for public use. Vebjà ¸rn Sand took the project to the Norwegian Public Roads Administration. Though hardly a visionary organization, when Sand presented the project the reaction was unanimous. "Everyone on the project knew we would be making something more than another boring bridge," Sand says of his meetings with government officials, "We would be... ...or the Project. Through the process of development, these world-class architects and engineers have joined Vebjà ¸rn Sand to create a "dream team" of experts on the history, design and structural aspects of the "Queen of Bridges" prepared to implement the global project. Sand's vision to build the bridge on each continent also includes drawing on the cultural traditions, and incorporating materials, unique to each region. Finally, the Leonardo Bridge Project represents a historical connection between Europe and the Middle East, between Christianity and Islam. The Italian Renaissance was inspired by the scholarship of the Ottoman Empire. Leonardo, in turn, was fascinated by the Middle East. This aspect seems particularly relevant since the events of September 11, 2001, as the Leonardo Project expands into the global goodwill project Vebjà ¸rn Sand envisioned. The Norwegian Leonardo Bridge was constructed and opened to foot and bicycle traffic on October 31, 2001. Da Vinci's vision resurrected, 500 years after the drawing was made. Vebjà ¸rn Sand is currently considering several sites in the United States for the next Leonardo Bridge Project.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

The Purpose of Higher Education

The Purpose of Higher Education Higher education is important because it aids students into finding self-awareness. Self-awareness is especially important because when people have a better understanding of themselves, they are often encouraged to build on their areas of strength, as well as identifying the areas that could use improvement. Self-awareness often leads to setting goals. Setting goals can lead to success. In other words, higher education is very beneficial and helps lead to success.Education will positively affect most, if not all areas of your life. The purpose of higher education is to prepare students for a more successful future, to allow students to have more opportunities in life through a liberal education, and to instruct students on how to think more critically. What is self-awareness and why should I care? Self-awareness is the ability to perceive your own personality, feelings, character, strengths, weaknesses, thoughts, motivations etc. Why should you care ab out being self-aware?Self-awareness is beneficial, and the words of Brett Blumenthal, a former college student and a bestselling author who has been featured in The New York Times, â€Å"It makes us better people. † Blumenthal lists reasons why self-awareness is important, including increased empathy, admission, acceptance, tolerance level, humility, and likeability. {sheerbalance. com} These traits will not only help you gain success in education and careers, but also aid in being a better person in general. Self-awareness is more often than not taught through higher education.Higher education prepares students for a successful future. Ultimately, success is achieving popularity, profit, or uniqueness. In other words, being successful means that you are content with your life choices. If you are not content with your life choices, then you are usually not as happy as you could potentially be. Success is most likely featured on any motivated person’s list of goals. Pre paration for a more successful future is an ideal purpose of higher education. Without that preparation, students lack the knowledge of knowing what steps to take next in their life.Having a higher liberal education opens individuals up to more opportunities in their life. According to The Association of American Colleges and Universities, the leading national association concerned with the quality, vitality, and public standing of undergraduate liberal education, a liberal education is â€Å"an approach to learning that empowers individuals and prepares them to deal with complexity, diversity, and change. It provides students with broad knowledge of the wider world (e. g. cience, culture, and society) as well as in-depth study in a specific area of interest. A liberal education helps students develop a sense of social responsibility, as well as strong and transferable intellectual and practical skills such as communication, analytical and problem-solving skills, and a demonstrated ability to apply knowledge and skills in real-world settings. † {The Association of American Colleges and Universities, AAC&U} Some jobs even require that all considered applicants have at least an associate’s degree.Another great purpose for higher education is obtaining a liberal education. â€Å"Those more educated now tend to be significantly less religious; those more religious tend to be significantly less educated,† says Os Guinness in Fit Bodies Fat Minds. On the contrary, the more educated tend to have broader minds, where as the more religious tend to have closed minds. It is not a matter of who has more or less education, but a matter of who has the ability to be able to think critically.Critical thinking is mandatory in receiving an education. â€Å"Critical thinking is the ability to apply reasoning and logic to new or unfamiliar ideas, opinions, and situations. † {wisegeek. org} In other words, critical thinking is abstract thinking. Why is that important? Critical thinking is important because it creates a higher level of analysis and concentration. When someone is critically thinking, they are more engaged and focused than someone who is not critically thinking.Critically thinking enables broad thinking and avoids sticking to obvious explanations or reasoning. Conclusively, critical thinking is respected and looked up to by many individuals for different reasons, making learning this trait a purpose for higher education. The purpose of higher education varies for everybody. Sometimes people get a higher education for more opportunities, for the sake of self-improvement, or because they are interested in learning and excelling in a specific profession.These three purposes are some of the most important because they do not only affect you in the classroom, but they also benefit you at home, work, or while collaborating with others. Some of the most important purposes of higher education is to prepare students for a mor e successful future, to allow students to have more opportunities in life through a liberal education, and to instruct students on how to think more critically. Higher education should be considered essential to all.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

The International Context Of Violence Against Women Essay

This tome epitomises the atrocities being perpetrated against women in various forms, combinations and modes. This volume highlights various aspects of domestic violence, dowry, exploitation in various ways besides teen dating, sexual slavery, rape and various other aspects besides the role of police in curbing this evil as the pillars of administration. It highlights the plight of women world over in the light of various studies on violence against women. It farther underscores the various aspects of violence with a focus on various roles of women under different situations like social, intimate family relations, community situations, cultural situations and various political contexts. The international context of violence against women has been effectively put forth highlighting various forms of violence as physical violence, emotional violence, spiritual violence, verbal abuse, sexual violence, psychological violence, cultural violence, financial abuse, neglect etc. For Indian context, it relates various aspects to historical background of violence making references to Rigveda, Samhitas, Upanishads, Dharmsutras, Manusmriti, Mahabharata etc. besides genderisation of gods as Shiva, Vishnu, Krishna relating them to Mahadevi Durga, Saraswati, Laxmi, Parvati, Kali, Sita, Radha, etc. Including various aspects contextually like Sati, dowry, widow remarriage, divorce, child marriage etc. Now a days Violence against women is very common topic, we can find out all over the world.Show MoreRelatedGulabi Gang and the Fight on Violence against Women1258 Words   |  5 PagesGulabi Gang and the Fight on Violence against Women In Uttar Pradesh, India, a group of women wearing pink saris and sticks called lathis (batons used by policemen) have been making news worldwide because of its radical method of beating abusive men / husbands to their wives with their sticks. This group of women is called the Gulabi or Pink Gang, and their objective is to provide justice to abused wives / women by beating their husbands with sticks (and in some instances, throwing chili to theirRead MoreThe Debate Of Feminists And Cultural Relativists1712 Words   |  7 Pagesof women and work to assure the protection of women’s human rights. This essay will suggest that there is enough common ground between these two approaches to provide a solid foundation where feminists and cultural relativists can combine their insights to create a more inclusive, adaptable critique of the mainstream international human rights discourse. Working together, they can have a greater impact on international human rights discourse and the actu alization of the human rights of women. BasedRead MoreConflict Analysis And Peacebuilding Planning Essay1143 Words   |  5 Pages I. Introduction From my experience in different contexts in East Africa, gender dimensions are often overlooked in conflict analysis and peacebuilding work. I believe that, as peacebuilders, understanding gender dynamics in conflict context would not only enrich our level of analysis, it would also help to come-up-with comprehensive and sustainable peacebuilding plan. In this essay, I will reflect on the conflict, gender and peacebuilding lens discussed in Lisa Schirch’s book (Chapter 9):Read MoreAre Women Human? And Other International Dialogues996 Words   |  4 PagesWhen will women be human? When? (p. 43). This is the main question that Catharine MacKinnon asks in her book â€Å"Are Women Human? And Other International Dialogues.† A common theme throughout the book is the mistreatment of women and inequality that they face in national, and international settings, and laws. The book is broken into three sections which cover equality, human rights issues for women, rape. When you p ut all of these common aspects together, she spends a great deal of time focusingRead MoreAnalysis Of Giselle Portenier s Guatemal Killer s Paradise 1171 Words   |  5 Pagesrising murder rate of women in Guatemala that largely go unsolved. This documentary illustrates the persistent gender expectations and perpetuate gendered violence since the Guatemalan Civil War as well as the lack of proper response from government institutions. Gender expectations and prejudices that arose out of the Guatemalan Civil War have developed a machoist, misogynistic society that is strife with physical and sexual violence toward women through which this societal violence has been entrenchedRead MoreThe Women s Rights Movement Essay1561 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction There are numerous organizations under the auspices of the International Women’s Rights Movement. As a matter of fact, according to Nevala (2005), since 1995, the United Nations has continuously been committed towards the elimination of violence against women under the United Nations Crime Prevention and Justice Program. As it pertains to Canada, Lakeman (2006) affords that The Vancouver Rape Relief Center shelters over 100 rape domestic abuse victims each year. However, in spite ofRead MoreSchool Related Gender Based Violence1151 Words   |  5 Pageseducation is the existence of gender-based violence in and around schools. School-related gender-based violence (SRGBV) refers to acts of sexual, physical or psychological violence inflicted on children in and around schools because of stereotypes and roles or norms attributed to or expected of them because of their sex or gendered identity. It additionally alludes to the contrasts in the between girls’ and boys’ experience of and vulnerabilities to violence. UNESCO The EFA Global Monitoring ReportRead MoreThe Convention On The Elimination Of All Forms Of Discrimination Against Women1445 Words   |  6 PagesThe Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) is a comprehensive international treaty, created to advocate for the rights of women s. It is a highly ratified treaty since one hundred and eighty-six of the UN’s 193 members have agreed to apply its principles to their nation states and to protect and fulfil its terms and conditions (Wakefield 2010, p.22). The aim of the essay is to demonstrate the strengths of CEDAW in promoting gender equality, whilst simultaneouslyRead MoreTypes Of Non Discriminatory Practices877 Words   |  4 Pagesfrom. Non-discriminatory principals to ensure that government take required steps toward safeguarding their policies, legislations, programs do not discriminate against women. The definition of discrimination† according to the conventions, the â€Å"the in tent/purpose or effect of nullifying, impairing or envying the enjoyment of rights by women.† This includes intentional or unintentional discrimination of women’s to enjoy their rights by the law to enjoy their rights (Hayes 2010, p.13). Secondly, substantiveRead MoreGender Violence And Sexual Violence1331 Words   |  6 PagesGender violence in general and violence against women in intimate relationships in particular, is a historical phenomenon present in much of human cultures, regardless of age, social class, race, ideology or religion. It is a hidden reality and still has much to do with companies in which it places women in a position of economic, social, cultural and emotional inferiority to men. For several decades, the various expressions of this type of violence began to be conceived as a human rights violation

Saturday, December 28, 2019

The Flaws of Standardized Testing Essays - 1416 Words

It is the one time of year when it seems all teachers, administrators, and even students are stressed. Parents are enforcing their kids to get to bed at a decent time, eat a healthy breakfast, and to not forget their number two pencils. It is TCAP testing time. Standardized testing has been a norm for over seventy-five years in almost every first- world country. From state regulated tests, to the â€Å"college-worthy† ACT and SAT, standardized tests have become a dreaded rite of passage for every student. The earliest record of standardized testing originates from China. It was created to test knowledge of Confucian poetry and philosophy for men applying for government jobs. In 1905 a man by the name of Alfred Binet created his own,†¦show more content†¦Teachers and administrators have yet to take the negative testing results and turn them into positive benefits for their schools. Standardized testing is not made to test every student. These tests often ask one sided, bias questions. Claims have been brought against standardized tests in court due to bias. How are they supposed to measure the ability of every student when every student is different? Students learn differently and preform differently depending upon the type of test given. Some students are stronger with essay questions, some with matching, and some with true and false. Some students could not even know the material but get a multiple choice question right through process of elimination. How is this a fair way to measure knowledge? It is not fair to the students that actually study for these tests and know the information required. Teachers strive for their students to score well because the score also reflects on their teaching. Teachers seem to no longer teach for students to learn material and retain knowledge but to â€Å"ace† tests. Some learn to teach according to the test. Students learn the information that is going to be on the test but do not necessarily fully understand the material they are learning. There are certain standards that have to be met with each test. In most states part of the scores reflect theShow MoreRelatedFlaws In Current Standardized Testing1147 Words   |  5 Pages The use of standardized tests is not something new. Everyone should know about their importance and the emphasis put on them, along with the stress that follows. There are multiple choice tests, high-stakes tests, and the dreaded time-limited tests. It is true to say not all tests are created equal; however, every one of these tests has serious flaws. Standardized tests are unfair because they fail to measure students abilities, they cause an unnecessary amount of stress, and there areRead MoreAlfie Kohn Literature Review Essay1102 Words   |  5 Pagesshow adequate yearly progress (AYP). Alfie Kohn points out that, in some cases, our students have become victim s of standardize testing. In his article, Standardized Testing and Its Victims (2000), he demonstrates how testing have become detrimental to our students instead of helping them. He outlines these detrimental issues with eight facts. Standardized testing has gotten out of control and has become more of a detriment to our students. Students are being forced to follow a curriculum thatRead MoreStandardized Testing And Its Effects On Students1194 Words   |  5 PagesStandardized Testing Rise and shine. Dress yourself and get to school. Sit through class after class while teachers try, to the best of their ability, to stuff bundles of knowledge into your head for the oh-so-important standardized tests. Go home and try to make sense of this sea of information for your good and your school’s. Repeat. This is the normal routine for students to undergo in order to reap acceptable grades on standardized tests. The cost of these tests aren t worth the so-calledRead MoreThe Effects Of Standardized Testing On Students Education System1194 Words   |  5 Pagesthe best of their ability, to stuff bundles of knowledge into your head for the oh-so-important standardized tests. Go home and try to make sense of this sea of information for your good and your school’s. Repeat. This is the normal routine for students to undergo in order to reap acceptable grades on standardized tests. The cost of these tests aren t worth the so-called benefits. Standardized testing is an ineffective tool in the education system because it is detrimental to students’ educationRead MoreStandardized Tests Are Not A Success1347 Words   |  6 PagesStandardized Tests are Not a Success Standardized testing has been ruling over the lives of students, making or breaking them in their education without fair judgement. Tests like the SAT and the ACT count for way too much when applying to colleges, which in turn limits the student s capabilities to thrive in an environment that would benefit them. There are many problems within a standardized test that deems them to be unreliable as a true test of knowledge. Although designed to test groups ofRead MoreSecurity Proplanation And Enumeration Protocol : Security Content Automation Protocol971 Words   |  4 PagesSecurity content automation protocol or SCAP is a suite of specifications that regulates the method for communicating software flaw and security configuration information between machines and humans. [1] It provides automated and standardized approach for implementing baseline security configurations, checking that the patches for security vulnerabilities exist, monitoring the system security, checking if system is compromised and being able to establish the exact the posture of security for a systemRead MoreStandardized Testing And Its Impact On The Classroom1633 Words   |  7 Pagessomething offensive. Microaggressions are even apparent in standardized testing and academia as test writers and teachers can unintentionally degrade students with a seemingly innocent statement. Standardized tests are allegedly supposed to test student’s knowledge of what they have learned or previously known. The tests also reflect the academic progress of the school to determine the quality of education that the school provides. Standardized tests seem to be an unbiased way of determining skill, butRead MoreEssay about Schools Must Reduce Their Use of Standard Tests728 Words   |  3 PagesLeft Behind and some sort of state-mandated standardized testing. Growing up in Pennsylvania, we had the PSSA’s, 4 Sights, and Keystone Exams. They always had felt trivial, but they did serve some purpos e as far as immediate impact to our school days. The use of standardized testing as a quantitative tool of measuring student’s performance took off in 2002 with the passing of the No Child Left Behind Act (â€Å"Standardized Tests,†2003). Standardized testing was part of the initiative to become the highestRead MoreThe Pros And Cons Of Standardized Testing1177 Words   |  5 PagesStandardized testing is a no Growing up in Chesapeake every student is forced to take a standardized test at the end of every class they take. Standardized testing has been a part of the educational system for so long that everyone is just accustomed to taking these tests or giving them out. Standardized testing does not just effect the students but it also effects the teachers. Chesapeake School Board should get rid of standardized testing in all grade levels because of different learning styleRead MoreThe Pros And Cons Of Standardized Testing794 Words   |  4 Pageswhy school testing should happen more frequently and why parents and teachers should be less fearful of standardized tests. For educators and parents, testing means standardized testing: a tool wielded by politicians and administrators to terrify children and teachers. When cognitive psychologists hear the word testing, they think immediately of the testing effect — one of the best learning strategies. In this quote, the authors make a sep aration between testing and standardized testing. They bring

Friday, December 20, 2019

Major Depression A Psychological Disorder - 870 Words

Major depression is a psychological disorder that can affect anyone at any age. It is a mental disorder that is not well-received by many, since there are a lot of negative things that are associated with it. Some people tend to say that this disorder isn’t real, they think that the person suffering can just easily snap out of it. This leads to people being scared of having depression, so they refuse to get help for fear of alienation from their family and friends, who believe that this disorder is just an excuse that someone can use to get attention. The truth is, depression is a lot more complicated than that. Depression has a lot of symptoms, and a patient must have five or more of the symptoms in order to qualify as depressed (American Psychiatric Association, 2013, p.160). The American Psychiatric Association (APA) (p.160) says that feeling depressed, sad, or empty almost every day, and a loss of interest in activities that used to bring you a lot of pleasure, such as spo rts, writing, and sex are the two main symptoms. These symptoms turn into irritability in teens and kids, and parents tend to ignore it because they believe that it is just a teenager being a teenager. The other symptoms of depression, according to the APA (p.161) are major weight loss or gain caused by changes in eating habits, insomnia or hypersomnia, feeling restless or slowed down, fatigue without a visible reason, feeling worthless or guilty, lack of ability to think (getting easily distracted),Show MoreRelatedEssay Psychological Causes of Depression702 Words   |  3 PagesPsychological Causes of Depression The actual causes of depression are still unknown today but there are a few theories that could help explain them. It is widely believed by psychologists and scientists that all mental disorders are brought about by a complex correlation of psychological, biological, and social factors. A serious loss, chronic illness, relationship problem, work stress, family crisis, financial setback, or any unwelcome life change can ignite a depressive disorder (PsychologyinfoRead MoreMajor Depressive Disorder849 Words   |  3 PagesMajor Depressive Disorder: Depression is a clinical condition associated with the normal emotions of bereavement and sadness. However, this condition does not pass on when the external causes of these emotions dissolve and is usually inconsistent to their cause. In essence, the classic severe conditions of depression have not been attributed to external precipitating cause. One of the most common conditions of depression is Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), which is a psychiatric condition thatRead MoreProzac Nation Essay1540 Words   |  7 PagesRunning Head: Prozac Nation and Major Depression Disorder Prozac Nation and Major Depression Disorder Raquel H. Sasyn University of Houston Ms. Chastity Farr Clinical Psychology Section - 25673 April 23, 2010 Introduction â€Å"Prozac Nation,† is a best-selling memoir written by Elizabeth Wurtzel in 1994. Based on Wurtzel’s stormy childhood and adolescence, Prozac Nation explores many topics such as major depression, family relations, and drug abuse. The story narrates Wurtzel’s lifeRead MoreMajor Depression And Its Effects On Social Involvement1565 Words   |  7 PagesMajor Depression Depression is one of the most common therapeutic topics. There are many effects that lead to major depression and thus require distinctive therapy methods. It is a mood disorder that is associated with the body, emotions and thoughts (Hoeksema and rector, 2011). In order for a person to be diagnosed with major depression, they must show at least 4 symptoms from any of the 4 categories; such as mood changes, cognitive changes, physical changes, and behavior changes; and must haveRead MoreBiological, Psychological, And Social Factors1505 Words   |  7 PagesA bio-psychosocial describes an approach systematically considers biological, psychological, and social factors and their complex interactions in understanding health, illness, and health care delivery. Biological factors include defective biological processes compounds that lead to biological dysfunction and illness. Psychological factors are about the individual’s emotions, behavior, and mental processes. Social factors include social status and relations. These factors are all considered in anRead MorePsychological Disorder740 Words   |  3 PagesPsychological Disorder Paper Psy/450 University of Phoenix Amanda Kettinger 3 July 2010 Psychological Disorder Many mental disorders vary from person to person and in its on severity. All disorders have both a physical and psychological components. Abnormal behavior is difficult to define. Behavior may also be evaluated by whether it conforms to social rules and cultural norms, an approach that avoids reproachful nonconformists as irregular for behavior that, although strange, mayRead MoreAre You Insane Or Insane?875 Words   |  4 Pageshave used this term in some fashion or another. What is interesting about this term is that it is not a mental disorder, it is a legal term that is used in the court system to describe a defendant in a trail. The Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition says, â€Å"Insane is a medically obsolete term for mental derangement or a disorder. Insanity is now a purely legal term, denoting a condition due to which a person lacks criminal responsibilityRead MoreChildhood Depressionn1528 Words   |  7 PagesChildhood Depression Abstract Empirical evidence shows that that depression disorder in children is a common condition that affects emotional, physical, and social development. Risk factors include parental conflict, a family history of depression, poor peer relationship, negative thinking, and deficit in coping skills. Treatment criteria of children and adults are the same, with the exception that children may display irritability rather than depressed or sad mood, and loss of weight may beRead MoreDepression : A Psychological Disorder911 Words   |  4 PagesMelissa Rivera Psychology Research Paper â€Å"Depression† A psychological disorder is a disorder of the mind involving thoughts, behaviors, and emotions that cause either self or others significant distress. Significant distress can mean the person is unable to function, meet personal needs on their own, or are a danger to themselves or others. There are many different psychological disorders, but the disorder I am choosing to focus on is Clinical Depression. Depression ranges in seriousness from mild, temporaryRead MoreSymptoms And Symptoms Of Depression1340 Words   |  6 PagesMany people today are suffering from major depressive disorder. This disorder affects their everyday lives and every single person copes with it differently. There are a lot of different factors that can contribute to one’s depression. Such as, biological, psychological and sociocultural. These factors include emotional symptoms, cognitive symptoms, behavior symptoms, somatic symptoms, and impairment in social and occupational functioning. So, what is depression? Everybody experiences times in their

Thursday, December 12, 2019

Small Firms Barriers

Question: Critically analyze the main barriers for Small firms to invest in Management and Leadership Development. Answer: Introduction Management and Leadership Development (MLD) is one of the key ingredients for most of the leading organizations throughout the world for achieving success and for gaining competitive advantages over potential competitors. The development process enables the organizations to lead their entire workforce and to resolve the organizational issues effectively. It becomes an issue for the organizations to operate effectively without having an efficient leader, especially within the current dynamic circumstances. According to Gold et al. 2010, leadership behaviors includes mounting and articulating organizational vision, empowering, listening, problem solving, role modeling, demonstrating confidence, protecting and representing the organization and walking the job. However, many researchers suggested that the MLD program is never easy to conduct, especially by the small sized organizations. Dalton (2010) stated that either the small organizations have not understood and neglected the importance of MLD or they are just incapable of conducting such program within their organizations in terms of financial and structural capabilities. Bush (2010) indicated that the managers of small organizations are considering the MLD positively but somehow their interests are lacking to involve themselves within such program and also small organization owners and managers believe that the MLD trainings and programs are academic and impractical. The purpose of the assignment is to identify the constraints for the small firms investing towards Management and Leadership Development (MLD) and to provide suitable recommendations for minimizing the barriers for those firms. For evaluating the barriers for small firms to invest in MLD, the current study reviews the existing theories and theoretical models of Management and Leadership Development (MLD). Literature Review - Management and Leadership Development (MLD) Management and Leadership Development (MLD) signifies both formal and informal leadership and management development that are essential for enhancing the aptitude, awareness and skills regarding management and leadership. MLD is entirely a process undertaken by the human resource development operations and activities (McGurk, 2010). The key motive of the process is to enhance the competency level of the skilled people, so that they will be able to lead and manage their organizations. It can be termed as one of the key steps of talent management by the HR professionals where the main aim is to develop leadership and managerial capabilities for supporting the organizations in the future (Tian et al. 2015). Skills Management and Leadership Development Responsibility Owner Transition Management Skills Developing long-term visions Planning Transitions towards the next stage of growth Senior Manager Organizational Development Skills Strategic Planning Organizational Planning Strategic Leadership Cultural Management Monitoring and Developing Strategic Planning Managing Daily Operations Middle Manager Organizational Management Skills Management Development Financial Management Performance Management and Control Team Building Conflict Management Coordination of work within the functional areas and direct reporting Line Manager Operational Management Skills Recruiting and Selection Training and Coaching Daily Supervision Management Meetings Performance Appraisals Oversee Work All of the Above Core Management Skills Interpersonal Effectiveness Time Management Operational Leadership Effectiveness Delegation Effectiveness Problem Solving and Decision-Making Role Concept Developing Transition towards upper level management responsibilities successfully Table 1: Management and Leadership Development (MLD) (Source: Managers.org.uk, 2015) The activities of MLD include management qualification and education, coaching, shadowing, mentoring, self-directed learning, on job experience and action learning. The key activities of MLD are as follows: Qualification: The activity typically involves the off-job development activities, obtaining education and qualification, especially from the business schools and professional authorities (Mondy and Mondy, 2014). Developmental Programmes: Developmental programmes or activities includes mainly both on-job and off-job development including leadership and management development activities or coaching (Forray, 2010). On-The-Job-Development: It involves typically the on-the-job activities, coaching and opportunities (Bjrkman and Welch, 2014). Assessment: Tools such as 360 degree and psychometric tests are essential for carrying out the assessment of formal development (Byars, 2015). The most important components of leadership include vision, values, empower and encourage, which are essential for managing the small organizations, especially for the small sized firms. Most of earlier researches have shown that the owners of the small sized are not the good leaders and they often stumble attracting talented employees towards their organizations (Edwards et al. 2015). In addition, most of the small sized organizations are profitable but inefficient dealing with any organizational issues. Many past researches have stated from their observations and analysis that many small firms had to shut down their business in spite of getting adequate profit. The researches have criticized the leadership capabilities of the owners of those organizations (Deadrick and Stone, 2014). Sufficient productivity, talented workforce and operational efficiency are not always enough for the small sized organizations to sustain and to expand, as the organizations need a leader with various managerial and leadership skills (Tian et al. 2015). The leaders needs to be efficient enough for carrying their organizations and for managing the organizational issues effectively in order contribute towards the growth and development of the company. However, to adapt such capabilities, the owner requires to develop leadership and managerial skills through Management and Leadership Development (MLD) programmes (Stone, 2014). Barriers for Small firms to invest in MLD Lack of awareness and knowledge regarding the value of management and leadership skills The owners and the managers of the small firms should be aware of the management and leadership skills, which are essential for the growth and development of their professional career and for their organizations (Sikora and Ferris, 2014). In case of a small firm, the financial, human and operational resources are limited. In addition, most of the industries and markets are getting more competitive and saturated frequently due to the presence of many potential and leading competitors (Mondy and Mondy, 2014). Management and leadership skills are the convenient and mandatory skills for managing the organizations and for leading the organization towards success. These skills also help to manage all sort of organizational resources effectively (McGurk, 2010). In addition, these skills are also helpful for developing decision-making skills and for constructing new strategies or policies for gaining competitive advantages. However, the managers and the owners of many small sized firms are not giving enough priority or mostly unaware about the positive aspects, benefits or about the values of such skills (Howland, 2012). The consequences for the lack of awareness are becoming massive for those small firms as they are often getting themselves involved within severe organizational issues, which are responsible for bringing obstacles for their business in terms of profit and organizational success. Additionally, they are also getting themselves far behind their competitors (Gold et al. 2010). Time constraints among over-stretched managers The Management and Leadership Development (MLD) programs are time consuming as they involve training, motivational and academic knowledge gathering processes. The MLD skills include transition management skills, organizational development skills, organizational management skills, operational management skills and core management skills (Forray, 2010). Although, the relevancy of these skills is larger for the leading and bigger organizations but all the small sized organizations, which are considering and are concentrating to expand their organizations and businesses, should acquire these management and leadership development skills, as they are essential for enhancing the performance and operational efficiency of the organizations (Edwards et al., 2015). An organization considered small in term of their structure, work forces, operational efficiency and financial capabilities. Most of the small firms have fewer amounts of employees and managers and a flat organizational structure. As a result, the owners or the managers of those organizations often have to deal with most of the situations including various organizational issues and decision-makings (Deadrick and Stone, 2014). It is not always problematic for the organizations and their owners as they have the capability to take independent decisions and to implement new strategies effectively with having maximum amount of obligations. However, as they are largely involving within such over-stretched activities, they often have adequate time to develop management and leadership skills (Dalton, 2010). Increasing staff turnover including various other financial costs The cost associated with the Management and Leadership Development (MLD) is often expensive as for implementing new training sessions and for consulting with academic resources (Carmichael, 2011). In addition, the returns on investments towards these programs are intangible and the organizations cannot assure or forecast the amount of benefits or positively outcome that they will be getting (Byars, 2015). In most of the cases, the small sized firms concentrate more upon their productivity and profitably. However, they often consider the strategies or policies required for organizational growth and development (Bush, 2010). For the purpose, the organizations should have to invest towards Management and Leadership Development (MLD) but they often considered themselves as incompetent. Limited financial capability is one of the key reasons behind their incompetency. Most of the leading and larger organizations are investing a lot towards MLD for getting both competitive advantages and organization success as they are financially independent and are capable of incurring the costs required for conducting such program (Bjrkman and Welch, 2014). Conclusions The current study concludes that in spite of various realizing the significances of Management and Leadership Development (MLD), most of the small firms are rarely investing towards the MLD program due to various reasons including their financial barriers, neglecting the importance of management and leadership skills and less spare time available for the managers to develop those skills. However, the study suggests that to understand the importance of Management and Leadership Development (MLD) and to enhance the rate of investments towards MLD programs by the small sized firms, it is very important to learn the management and leadership skills. Recommendations Government and Academic Interventions The government and various academic institutions should encourage the knowledge and learning process of Management and Leadership Development (MLD) to raise awareness regarding the value of MLD among the owners and managers of small firms. Assessing the Management and Leadership Development (MLD) of the potential competitors The next recommendation is to analyze the strategies or policies regarding Management and Leadership Development (MLD) that potential competitors are following in terms of their financial capability and available time. Additionally, the owners, managers and the entrepreneurs should also assess how the programs are benefiting their competitors. Effective Communication between HR professionals and the Owners Management and Leadership Development (MLD) is mostly the activity or program conducted under the direct involvement of the human resource department. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the HR professionals to communicate effectively with the owners and managers of the small firms to influence them investing towards the MLD program. Creative thinking by the SME leaders The key to success within the current circumstances is to think creatively while running an organization. This will open up the opportunity for the leaders to understand the importance of these skills including the Management and Leadership Development (MLD). Reference List Books Byars, L. (2015). Human resource management. [Place of publication not identified]: Irwin Mcgraw-Hill Carmichael, J. (2011). Leadership and management development. Oxford: Oxford University Press Dalton, K. (2010). Leadership and management development. Harlow, England: Prentice Hall/Financial Times Gold, J., Thorpe, R. and Mumford, A. (2010). Gower handbook of leadership and management development. Burlington, VT: Gower Mondy, R. and Mondy, J. (2014). Human resource management. Boston: Pearson Stone, R. (2014). Human resource management. Milton, Qld.: John Wiley and Sons Australia Tian, M., Risku, M. and Collin, K. (2015). A meta-analysis of distributed leadership from 2002 to 2013: Theory development, empirical evidence and future research focus. Educational Management Administration Leadership Journals Bjrkman, I. and Welch, D. (2014). Framing the field of international human resource management research. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 26(2), pp.136-150 Bush, T. (2010). Accelerating Leadership Development. Educational Management Administration Leadership, 38(2), pp.147-148 Deadrick, D. and Stone, D. (2014). Human resource management: Past, present, and future. Human Resource Management Review, 24(3), pp.193-195 Edwards, G., Schedlitzki, D., Turnbull, S. and Gill, R. (2015). Exploring power assumptions in the leadership and management debate. Leadership Org Development J, 36(3), pp.328-343 Forray, J. (2010). Management and Leadership Development. Academy of Management Learning Education, 9(1), pp.145-147 Howland, G. (2012). Book Review: Leadership and Management Development. Educational Management Administration Leadership, 40(3), pp.410-411 McGurk, P. (2010). Outcomes of management and leadership development. Journal of Mgmt Development, 29(5), pp.457-470 Sikora, D. and Ferris, G. (2014). Strategic human resource practice implementation: The critical role of line management. Human Resource Management Review, 24(3), pp.271-281 Website Managers.org.uk, (2015). Management Leadership Qualifications, Training and Development - CMI. [online] Available at: https://www.managers.org.uk/ [Accessed 19 Jun. 2015]

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

The Conduction Systems in the Heart

Question: Discuss about The Conduction Systems in the Heart. Answer: Introduction The cardiac conduction system refers to a group muscle cells located on the walls of the heart and specialized in terms of their functions. The conduction system of the heart is specifically involved in the sending of signals to the heart causing it to contract. This system is composed of the atrioventricular node nodes, sinoatrial (pacemaker) node, Purkinje fibers, bundle branches and bundle of His. The pacemaker initiates the sequence of contraction by enabling the atrial muscles to contract sending the signals to the atrioventricular node, the bundle of His, the bundle branches and finally to the Purkinje fibers making the ventricles contract (Schwitter et al., 2013). At the same time, an electric current is created by this contraction but this can only be seen on an electrocardiogram graph. This electrical system is normally used by doctors to determine whether the heart is active or not. This paper therefore explores the cardiac and their relevance to the cardiac rhythm. The sinoatrial node The sinoatrial node is a spindle-shaped structure that contains closely packed cells in a matrix which is fibrous in nature. It is about ten millimeters long, very thick and narrow on the end near the vena atrioventricular node. The sinoatrial node has several postganglionic adrenergic and cholinergic nerve terminals which transmit the impulses (Wahl-Schott et al., 2014). The neurotransmitters stimulate the beta-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors by modulating the sinoatrial nodes discharge. The sinoatrial node produces an electrical stimuli at a regular rate in order to pump blood at the required rate. The rate at which the sinoatrial node contracts depend upon the blood and oxygen needs of the body. Every stimulus which is produced must pass through the myocardial cells which lead to a generation of contractions in atrioventricular node wave-like fashion and is distributed across all atria. In cardiovascular diseases involving the failure of the sinoatrial node, the patients are t reated by fixing either a permanent or temporary pacemaker depending on the severity of the disease. In the atrioventricular node, the stimulus is delayed for some time before proceeding to the next step to allow the atria to get enough time for pumping all the blood inside the ventricles. When the atria empty all the blood, the atrioventricular node found in between the ventricles are closed to allow the atria to be filled up with blood, a point whereby the cardiac stimulus goes through the atrioventricular node as well as the bundle of His to the bundle branches and Purkinje fibers (Vedantham, 2015). Bearing in mind that there are millions of myocardial cells, all these need to contract within a span of less than one second. When the right ventricles contract, the blood flows to the lungs leading to the absorption of oxygen and subsequent release of carbon dioxide. Intermodal conduction The anterior internodal process starts from the anterior margin of the sinoatrial node and proceeds anteriorly to enter the anterior interatrial band (the Bachmann bundle). This band progresses into the left atrium whereby the anterior internodal pathway enters into the superior margin of the atrioventricular node. The Bachmann bundle is large enough and it is said to conduct the cardiac impulse from the right ventricle to the left atrium. Atrioventricular node The conserved region of the atrioventricular node is a superficial vessel which is found under the endocardium of the right atrium. This position is actually anterior to the ostium of the coronary sinus and the tricuspid atrioventricular node. In fact, in about three-quarters of the people, the hearts contain an arterial supply to the atrioventricular node, which in turn branches from the right coronary artery. The function of the atrioventricular node is that it is mostly involved in the modulation of the impulse of the atrial so that the blood can be transmitted to the ventricles and lead to coordination of the ventricular and atrial contractions. Atrioventricular node vagus It has been observed that cardiac responses to both sympathetic stimulation and bursts of the atrioventricular vagus start and end quickly and slowly respectively. When the responses of the atrioventricular vagus are set and offset in a rapid manner, the bets in the heart are modulated leading to the electrical conduction. The sinus rate can be reduced by the fact that the nodal conduction by the afferent atrioventricular vagus and the peak on the sinus rates occur at the atrioventricular node for varied periods of time. This occurs without tampering with electrical conduction of the afferent atrioventricular vagus or prolonging the time taken for conduction to occur. Bundle of His These refer to several cardiac muscle cells which are very specific in their function of conducting electrical impulses. It is involved in conducting electrical signals from the atrioventricular node to the apex of the bundle branches (Lustgarten et al., 2015). The branches then pass the impulse to the Purkinje fibers which enable the contraction of the ventricles at paced interatrioventricular nodes. In case there are abnormalities that affect the cells that conduct impulses in heart, they block such conduction. The classification of such abnormalities is based on the exact location in the heart where the atrioventricular node abnormalities have occurred. If the abnormality is on the right or left side of the bundle of His, this is called the bundle branch block. The Purkinje fibers The Purkinje fibers are found in the atrioventricular part of the heart whereby they are involved in the transmission of cardiac impulses in the cardiac cells. This makes the ventricles contract and pumps the blood. In other cases, the Purkinje fibers are located at the base of the ventricles. It is true that the special muscles found in the Purkinje fibers have a better ability to conduct the nerve impulses as compared to the other types of muscles (Sedmera and Gourdie, 2014). This activity occurs in a synchronized fashion and hence the rhythm is made to be consistent. These fibers split into the ventricles and atria so that it can be able to distribute the electrical impulses from the sinoatrial node. To do this, the Purkinje fibers and the atrioventricular node have several mitochondrial cells and voltage-gated sodium channels and myofibrils. The rate at which these fibers work is solely influenced by the autonomic nervous system. Their ability to produce the action potential although at a slow rate makes them be useful as the last resort especially when the other pacemakers have failed in function. In the circulatory system, the firing of the Purkinje cells is termed as the premature ventricular contraction. The bundle branches The bundle branches are also described as the offshoots of the bundle of His. In the conduction of electrical impulses, the bundle fibers transmit the action potential from the bundle of His to the Purkinje fibers. When the bundle branches are abnormal, the conduction of cardiac signals meaning that the depolarization of the ventricles also fails and referred to as the bundle branch block. The causes of bundle block can be caused by the onset of the heart disease as well as faulty surgery of the heart. In this case, the normal pathway for the conduction of electrical impulses cannot occur by use of the normal pathway (Strauss et al., 2013). Therefore this process might occur through muscle fibers which due to their low specialization can result in a slow electrical transmission. Moreover, the direction of the conduction is altered leading to a loss of synchrony hence the depolarization of the ventricles takes longer than usual. Significance of cardiac conductions in the heart The heart contractions begin with the sending of electrical impulses from the pacemakers in the right atrium which in turn make the right atrium contract. The effects of this contraction are the pushing of blood to the ventricles through the cardiac atrioventricular node. When the electrical impulses get to the atrioventricular node, they proceed forward to the bundle of His whereby it is distributed across the left and the right bundles and finally proceeds to the Purkinje fibers. The left ventricle then contracts to be the first and the left ventricle follows shortly after. Once the contraction of the two ventricles node has contracted, the blood is pushed to the rest of the body via the aorta. Once this is done, the ventricles relax in preparation for another round of electrical impulse conduction. Therefore the conducting system of the heart is majorly specialized for starting up the cardiac impulses whereby they get conducted in a rapid fashion throughout the heart. When the cardiac cycle starts, the contractions are coordinated making the cardiac chambers contract (Nishikawa et al., 2012). Although the atria and the ventricles contract together, the atrial contractions take place being the first. The conducting system of the heart enables it to attain an automatic rhythmic beat. The events in the cardiac cycle need to be coordinated very well for the heart to pump blood in an effective manner. This means that the systemic, as well as the pulmonary blood circulation need to coordinate these processes. When the sympathetic ganglia are stimulated it reduces the period of the refractory period in the epicardium. Moreover, such stimulation also causes effects to the endocardium of the left ventricle. When measurements are taken at atrioventricular node points, the short refractions are classified according to the epicardial regions. In other cases, the norepinephrine hormone is distributed in a non-uniform manner leading to the non-uniform electrophysiologic effects which are observed. More important is that the concentration of the norepinephrine in the ventricles is higher at the base as compared to the top (Parati and Esler, 2012). It is also important to note that the afferent vagus is at a higher position in the ventricles leading to the atrioventricular node reactions in the myocardial infections. On the other hand, the left ventricle supplies the blood to all other parts of the body by pumping it through the aorta and coronary arteries. In this case, the atria are filled with blood, the atrioventricular nodes are closed and the ventricles are already empty. At this point, the sinoatrial node is preparing itself to initiate another electrical stimulus and the whole protocol repeats itself. Since the sinoatrial node and the atrioventricular node have only one stimulus, they need to recharge in atrioventricular nodes before they engage in another round of electric transmission. The abnormalities in the function of the sinoatrial nodes are in common in the old patients who have a history of cardiac diseases or diabetes. For instance, in a medical condition like the sinus pause, the sinus code ceases to function temporarily for second or minutes. In lower pacemakers, although the function rate of the heart is maintained, longer than usual pauses can cause dizziness to the affected person. The sympathetic activities are regulated by the atrioventricular vagus at specifically the pre and postjunctional regions through the control of the norepinephrine hormone. This is made possible by the inhibition of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate which is involved in the addition of phosphate groups to the muscles of the heart. The alterations in the afferent atrioventricular vagus electrical conduction can cause malfunctions in the circulatory system. Tonic atrioventricular vagal stimulation results in a greater absolute reduction in sinus rate in the presence of tonic background sympathetic stimulation. In contrast, changes in atrioventricular node conduction during sympathetic and atrioventricular vagus stimulation are made up of the summation of the responses of afferent atrioventricular vagus responses to tone in the atrioventricular vagus. Conclusion The electrical conduction systems are of paramount importance in the human body. This is because a constant flow of blood from the heart to all other body part and back are essential. The circulatory system is crucial for the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the cells to maintain the normal body functions. This means that all these activities need to be coordinated to maintain health cardiac functions. However, there are some hopes in the medical field because some of these abnormalities can be treated for instance the artificial or permanent pacemakers. Some drugs such as the hydralazine are also used to increase the heart rate especially in patients who do not present with syncope. Reference List Lustgarten, D.L., Crespo, E.M., Arkhipoatrioventricular node-Jenkins, I., Lobel, R., Winget, J., Koehler, J., Liberman, E. and Sheldon, T., 2015. His-bundle pacing versus biventricular pacing in cardiac resynchronization therapy patients: A crossover design comparison. Heart rhythm, 12(7), pp.1548-1557. Nishikawa, K.C., Monroy, J.A., Uyeno, T.E., Yeo, S.H., Pai, D.K. and Lindstedt, S.L., 2012. Is titin a winding filament? A new twist on muscle contraction. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 279(1730), pp.981-990. Parati, G. and Esler, M., 2012. The human sympathetic nervous system: its releatrioventricular nodence in hypertension and heart failure. European heart journal, pp.ehs041. Schwitter, J., Kanal, E., Schmitt, M., Anselme, F., Albert, T., Hayes, D.L., Bello, D., Tth, A., Chang, Y., atrioventricular noden Osch, D. and Sommer, T., 2013. Impact of the Advisa MRI pacing system on the diagnostic quality of cardiac MR images and contraction patterns of cardiac muscle during scans: Advisa MRI randomized clinical multicenter study results. Heart Rhythm, 10(6), pp.864-872. Sedmera, D. and Gourdie, R.G., 2014. Why do we hatrioventricular node e Purkinje fibers deep in our heart?. Physiological Research, 63, pp.S9. Strauss, D.G., Loring, Z., Selvester, R.H., Gerstenblith, G., Tomaselli, G., Weiss, R.G., Wagner, G.S. and Wu, K.C., 2013. Right, but not left, bundle branch block is associated with large anteroseptal scar. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 62(11), pp.959-967. Vedantham, V., 2015. New Approaches to Biological Pacemakers: Links to Sinoatrial Node Development. Trends in molecular medicine, 21(12), pp.749-761. Wahl-Schott, C., Fenske, S. and Biel, M., 2014. HCN channels: new roles in sinoatrial node function. Current opinion in pharmacology, 15, pp.83-90.